Author Topic: Japanese Occupation and how notes in their areas of control are considered  (Read 459 times)

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Offline Scrimmers

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As I mentioned on another thread I’m a new forum member just starting to research and look at a long neglected collection of bank notes from the Japanese Puppet Banks of WW2. After the invasion of China by Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War, China was split into various areas controlled by either the invading Japanese, or Free China controlled by either National Government or Communists forces. All three authorities issued paper money through the banks they controlled and it is this relationship with the banks and the authorities I am currently considering.  For example in 1931 the Japanese seized control of Manchuria and set up a Japanese-aligned puppet state under the last Emperor of China Puyi and on 18 February 1932 officially proclaimed it Manchukuo. This puppet state arrangement which was different to direct Japanese military rule used in other parts of Asia during later parts of the war,  lasted until the end of Japanese surrender in 1945 and from 1932 issued currency from the Japanese controlled Central Bank of Manchukuo. This is well documented and the currency issued under this arrangement is understood to be directly linked therefore to Japanese rule and in some ways can almost be recognized as occupation currency. My confusion however comes with other issues from other areas and this is due to my lack of understanding of Chinese history, politics and culture. For example adjacent to Manchuria and from 1932, Manchukuo was the region (province?)  of Hopei. Japan invaded in 1936, setting up the East Hopei Autonomous Government and two years later the territory was incorporated into Manchukuo proper. This area therefore became part of the ‘puppet’ state Japan controlled and while earlier bank notes from the Provincial Bank of Hopei were presumably issued from that bank without necessarily any sanction from either the Chinese Government or the Japanese, once the area became part of the puppet state of Manchukuo, an issue from 1940 from the bank could perhaps be considered as being Japanese sanctioned and while not actually coming from the state’s puppet bank, it would have circulated alongside them and could perhaps be considered part of the Japanese occupation legacy. I’d be very interested to know what the collecting field in general thinks about this or whether notes and coins like this are not considered as being connected to the occupation at all. Other examples might be issues on Hainan Island after the Japanese military took over in 1939, and probably many other areas that I am still not aware of especially as I understand the areas controlled by the various warring factions were fluid and borders and areas of influences probably changed throughout the period.